La Guadeloupe

Le relief

La Guadeloupe, avec la Martinique, forme les Antilles françaises. Le contour original de l’île la fait comparer à un papillon aux ailes déployées. La partie basse à l’est, Grande-Terre, est d’origine corallienne alors qu’à l’ouest Basse-Terre offre un relief volcanique plus accidenté. La Soufrière (1 484 m), au sud, s’est réveillé en 1976 et depuis est surveillé de très près par les vulcanologues.

Le climat

Soumise au régime des alizés, l’île est très hyumide à l’est et l’ouest, à l’abri des montagnes, souffre de sécheresse.

La population

À l’origine peuplée de blancs et d’esclaves noirs, la Guadeloupe s’est beaucoup moins métissée que la Martinique. Les « békés » sont peu nombreux, quelques « petits blancs » ou « matignons » habitent Grande-Terre alors que les nombreux Indiens coolies restent entre eux.

Les ressources de l’île

La canne à sucre demeure la grande culture industrielle de l’île. Contrairement à la Martinique, la production du rhum y reste secondaire. Au sucre il faut ajouter les bananes exportées en masse. À côté de ces cultures spéculatives, l’agriculture vivrière est très insuffisante. Des plans d’aide devraient permettre de cultiver les produits frais nécessaires frais nécessaires à l’autosuffisance de l’île.

En dehors des industries agroalimentaires, la Guadeloupe est sous-industrialisée. Le tourisme, par contre, est en pleine croissance : de magnifiques hôtels et des croisières à faire rêver !

Pointe-à-Pitre est en pleine expansion. Son aéroport a le trafic le plus important des Petites Antilles. Elle s’enorgueillit de son université scientifique, et ses fonctions administratives en font une âpre rivale de Fort-de-France pour rayonner sur les îles environnantes.

LE SAIS-TU ?

Que fait-on avec la canne à sucre ?

Du sucre et du rhum.

2 votes. Moyenne 1.50 sur 5.

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