La Martinique

Le relief

Cette île oblongue est d’origine volcanique. Les plus anciens volcans se trouvent au sud et sont complètement érodés. En revanche, au piton du Cabret et surtout la montagne Pelée (1 397 m) révèlent une activité récente.

Le climat

Le climat de l’île est tropical avec des extrêmes : au nord-ouest il tombe 8 mètres d’eau par an sur les hauteurs et, au contraire, au sud-est abrité des vents, la sécheresse menace. Les cyclones viennent régulièrement bouleverser les paysages agricoles (en août 1980 Allen, considéré comme le plus violent du siècle, a anéanti une grande partie des plantations de canne à sucre).

La population

La population actuelle, très métissée (blancs et noirs), est dominée par les créoles ou « békés ». Les Indiens (coolies), implantés plus récemment, restent dans les zones de grandes plantations.

Les ressources de l’île

L’activité agricole est presque entièrement regroupée à l’est de l’île avec une exception dans la plaine alluviale du Lamentin, près de Fort-de-France. Après la canne à sucre (le rhum fait sa notoriété), l’ananas (concurrencé par le marché africain), la banane se trouve en tête de l’activité agricole industrielle. Afin de rééquilibrer l’économie de l’île, des efforts sont faits pour accroître les produits vivriers. De plus, la pêche artisanale reste de faible rapport. Une école des pêches, des élevages d’huîtres et d’écrevisses devrait améliorer ce secteur. Le tourisme reste une grande source de revenus. Il est vrai que les sites sont tellement beaux ! La baie de Fort-de-France est une magnifique escale de croisière.

Fort-de-France, devenue capitale après la tragique destruction de Saint-Pierre (éruption de la montagne Pelée en 1902) ; bien que contestée par la Guadeloupe et la Guyane, est la ville la mieux développée pour assurer le rôle de métropole. En plus de fonctions culturelles, administratives et militaires, la ville dispose d’un port et d’un aéroport au service d’une activité industrielle naissante et d’un commerce qui ne demande qu’à croître.

LE SAIS- TU ?

Lors de l’éruption de la montagne Pelée (1902) toute la population de Saint-Pierre fut anéantie sauf un homme. Pourquoi ?

C’était le seul prisonnier de la prison, et il fut protégé par ses murs !

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