La Nouvelle-Calédonie

Le relief, le climat

Île tout en longueur et grande 2 fois comme la Corse, la Nouvelle-Calédonie se trouve peu éloignée de l’Australie (1 800 km) dans l’océan Pacifique. Montagneuse et ceinturée par un récif-barrière corallien, elle bénéficie d’un climat tropical agréable avec parfois des cyclones à la saison chaude (été austral en avril, mai, juin).

La population

Les Mélanésiens (Canaques), les Européens (Caldoches), et les Asiatiques ne cohabitent pas en harmonie. Les Mélanésiens ont un niveau de vie moindre, le métissage n’existe pas, ou peu, des mouvements nationalistes secouent violemment et périodiquement l’île.

Les ressources de l’île

L’agriculture reste vivrière en dehors de l’élevage des « stations » appartenant aux Caldoches. La principale ressource économique vient du sous-sol : cuivre, chrome, manganèse, fer et surtout nickel. Ce dernier est exploité à ciel ouvert par de petites compagnies qui l’exportent brut vers le Japon et surtout par la société Nickel (groupe Rothschild) qui protège l’extraction des multinationales. La société Nickel traite le minerai à Doniambo grâce à l’hydroélectricité locale et au charbon australien.

Nouméa (80 000 habitants) accueille une population jeune et dynamique attirée par cet eldorado tropical.

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