La Réunion

Découverte par les Portugais au XVIe siècle, l’île est restée déserte jusqu’à ce que les Français se l’approprient (1638) et la baptisent île Bourbon (1649). Après la Révolution, elle fut appelée ile de la Réunion (1793) puis au XIXe siècle, elle fut rebaptisée, tour à tour, Bonaparte puis Bourbon

En 1946 elle redevient île de la Réunion, département de l’outre-mer de l’océan Indien. Le métissage est très important ; Européens, Malgaches, Comoriens, Chinois, Indonésiens et Indiens. Les blancs représentent un tiers de la population (créoles, « petits blanc » des Hauts ou « z’oreilles » métropolitains).

Le relief

À l’origine de sa formation un volcan aujourd’hui en sommeil au piton des Neiges, mais toujours en activité plus au sud au piton de la Fournaise. Le piton des Neiges est profondément entaillé par 3 grands cirques.

Le climat

Située dans l’hémisphère Sud, l’île connaît des saisons inversées.

L’hiver (juillet-août-septembre), sans être aussi rigoureux qu’en France, se fait durement sentir dans les Hauts. Par contre, la plaine littorale jouit d’un climat plus doux : sec à l’ouest et humide à l’est, avec de violents cyclones.

Les ressources de l’île

Culture de la canne à sucre et culture de la vanille sont les principales activités agricoles. La Réunion exporte du sucre et de l’essence de géranium (plante à parfum). Les « petits blancs » distillent eux-mêmes les feuilles dans des alambics de fortune. Au nord, la capitale, Saint-Denis, souhaiterait devenir un centre de rayonnement français dans l’océan Indien. L’île surpeuplée n’offre guère d’emplois.

LE SAIS-TU ?

Avec quoi fait-on l’esszence de parfum de géranium ? La fleur ? la feuille ? la tige ?

La tige

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